Sunday, 7 April 2013


Greeting sentences in English

Morning to afternoon 12
Good morning Raju!
Good morning sir!
Good morning mom!

Afternoon 12 to evening 5
Good afternoon Raju!
Good afternoon sir!
Good afternoon mom!

After evening 5
Good evening Raju!
Good evening sir!
Good evening mom!

Any time in a day ( While departing )

Good day to you Raju!          

Departing in Night

Good night Raju!
Sweat dreams, darling!

Informal greetings with same aged

Hi Raju!
Hello Ramu!

Departing

Good bye, friends!
Bye, Bye!
Bye, see you!


Good manners

Please                          It’s my pleasure                                  Excuse me
Thanks                          Sorry                                                  That is alright
After you                    Pardon                                                Allow me
Welcome                      Kindly                                                Fine
Could you please        Can you please                                   That’s OK
May I                          That’s nice of you                                         





Alphabet

Letters in English are called Alphabet. There are 26 letters in English language. Out of 26 letters 5 are vowels.Remaining 21 are Consonants.

Vowels : Letters A, E, I, O and U are called vowels.

Consonants : Letters B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y and Z are called Consonants.

Word : Word is nothing but a group of letters that gives a meaning.

We join Vowels and Consonants to make words. Each and every word will have at least one Vowel in it. If an Vowel is not present, at least one “Y” will be present in it.

Eg. Eat, Sleep, Drink, Run, Try, Fly etc.

Types of letters : There are two kinds of letters in English language. 1. Capital letters. 2. Small letters.

We use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence. Names of persons, animals, places and things that is Nouns are also written beginning with Capital letters.

Eg. Raju, Ramesh, London, Lion, Pen etc.



The Sentence

A group of words which makes a complete sense, is called a sentence.
Eg. Raju ate a piece of bread.

Kinds of Sentences.

There are four types of sentences.

  1. Assertive sentence or declarative sentence : A sentence that is in the form of an assertion or declaration is called an Assertive or declarative sentence.
Eg. Ramu sat on a chair.

  1. Interrogative sentence : A sentence that is in the form of a question is called an Interrogative sentence.
Eg. Where is he?

  1. Imperative sentence : A sentence that is in the form of a command or entreaty is called an Imperative sentence.
Eg. 1.Don’t go there.
      2. May I know your name please?

  1. Exclamatory sentence : A sentence that expresses a strong or sudden feeling is called an Exclamatory sentence.

Eg. How beautiful the flower is!


Subject and Predicate

Whenever we make sentences we name and something about that person or thing.


  1. The part of a sentence that names the person or thing is called the Subject in the sentence.
  2. The part that says about the action performed by that person or thing, we call as the predicate.

Eg. Sachin plays Cricket.

In this sentence, “ Sachin “ is the Subject. “ plays Cricket “ is the Predicate.

In a sentence, usually, the subject comes first. Some times it comes second.

Eg. 1.Ramesh sings Kannada songs. ( Here Subject “ Ramesh “ has come first )
  1. Here is the pen. ( Here the Subject “ pen “ has come second )

Subject is left out in Imperative sentences.

Eg. 1.Go there. ( Subject “ you “ is not used here )
      2. Help him ( Here also the Subject “ you “ is not used )

The Phrase and Clause

Phrase : A group of words that gives a sense but not a complete sense is called a Phrase.

Eg. 1.Ramu ate cake.

In this example, “ ate cake “ is a phrase.

2. Sun sets in the east.

In this example, group of words “ sets in the east “ is a phrase.

Clause : A group of words that gives a complete sense and contains both a Subject and Predicate is called a Clause.

Eg. Saurav played Cricket.

In this example, the group of words “ Saurav played Cricket is a Clause. This sentence contains both a Subject and a Predicate.



Parts of Speech

There are eight parts of speech in English language.

They are

  1. Noun : A parts of speech that shows or indicates the name of a person, place, animal or thing is known as a Noun.

Eg. Akbar, Ramu, Sachin, Davangere etc.

  1. Adjective : is a parts of speech that says about a noun.

Eg. Good, Bad etc.

  1. Pronoun  : is a parts of speech used for a noun or instead of a noun.

Eg. He, She etc.

  1. Verb : is a parts of speech that shows or expressed an action.

Eg. Read, Write, Sleep.

  1. Adverb : is a parts of speech used to say about a verb.

Eg. Slowly, Fastly etc.

  1. Preposition : is a parts of speech that shows position of a thing with respect to the other thing.

Eg. On, Under etc.

  1. Conjunction : is a parts of speech that joins two words or sentences.

Eg. And, Or, But etc.

  1. Interjection : is a parts of speech that expresses strong or sudden feeling.

Eg. Oh, Alas, Ah etc.

Genders.

Gender means sex of a person or thing, meaning male or female.
There are four kinds of Genders in English language.

  1. Masculine Gender : A noun that represents a male animal is called Masculine Gender.

Eg. Lion, Man.

  1. Feminine Gender : A noun that represents a female animal is called Feminine Gender.
Eg. Lioness, Woman.
  1. Common Gender : A noun that represents either a male animal or a female animal is called Common Gender.

Eg. Student, Teacher.

  1. Neuter Gender : A noun that represents neither a male animal or female animal is called Neueter Gender.

Eg. Table, Chair.

Objects that are known for their strength are considered Masculine Gender.

Eg. The Sun, Death etc.

Objects that are known for their beauty, softness are considered Feminine Gender.

Eg. The moon, Peace.

Ways of forming Feminine of Nouns

  1. By using an entirely different word.

Eg. Boy, Girl;
      Brother, Sister;

  1. Using syllables like - ess, - ine, - trix, -a etc.

Eg. Host, Hostess; Hero, Heroine; Sultan, Sultana; Lion, Lioness; Testator, Testatrix;

Numbers

There are two numbers.

  1. Singular number : A noun that represents only one person or thing is known as Singular number.

Eg. Pen, Book etc.

  1. Plural number : A noun that represents more than one person or thing is known as Plural number.

Eg. Pens, Books etc.



Some ways of making plurals of nouns.

1. One way of making plural of a noun is by adding – s to the singular.

Eg. Boy, Boys; Girl, Girls;
2. By adding - es to the singular. Nouns that end with - s, - sh, - ch (soft) or - x form the plural by adding - es.

8Eg. Class, Classes; Bench, Benches; Brush, Brushes; Box, Boxes;

  1. Most nouns ending in -o also form their plural by adding - es to the singular.

Eg. Buffalo, Buffaloes; Mango, Mangoes;

  1. A few nouns even though they end with “o” merely add – s.

Eg. Piano, Pianos; Kilo, Kilos;

  1. Nouns that have their last letter as - y and last but one letter as a consonant, Make their plural by changing - y into - i and adding – es.

Eg. Baby, Babies; City, Cities;

  1. Some nouns that end with - f or - fe form their plural by changing - f or - fe into v and adding - es.

Eg. Life, Lives; Leave, Leaves;

  1. Some nouns change the inside vowel to make the plural.

Eg. Man, Men; Foot, Feet;

  1. Some nouns add - en to the singular to make their plurals.

Eg. Ox, Oxen; Child, Children;

  1. For some nouns singular and plural are alike.

Eg. Aircraft, Series etc.

  1. Some nouns are only used in plurals.

Eg. Scissors, Spectacles.

Articles.

There are two types of articles.
  1. Indefinite Article.
  2. Definite Article.

  1. Indefinite article : “A” or “An” is called as indefinite article because it leaves indefinite the person or thing spoken about.
Eg. There is a train.

Here, a train means any train in general.

  1. Definite article : “The” is called as the definite article because it refers to a particular person or thing.

 Eg. There is the train.

Here, the train means a particular train, may be the train we are thinking about.

Use of A or An

Use of A or An depends on the pronunciation of the first letter of the word. An is used before words beginning with vowel pronunciation.

A is used before words beginning with consonant pronunciation.

Eg. An hour, An Elephant etc.
      A ball, A pen etc.

Numerical value of “A” is one.
Use of definite Article.

  1. To refer to a particular person or thing.

Eg. The tree is tall ( The tree we have already talked about ).

  1. When a singular noun represents a whole class.

Eg. The horse is a noble animal.

  1. Before some proper nouns like (a) Canals (2) Deserts (3) Mountain - ranges. (d) Oceans (e) Rivers.

  1. Before the names of certain books.

The Ramayana, The Vedas.

  1. Before things that are unique.

The Earth, The Sun.

  1. Before musical instruments.

The Piano, The Flute etc.

  1. With superlatives, with ordinals.

     Eg. The best book, The first, The second etc.

  1. Before a noun to give the force of a superlative.

The noun is the word ( the chief word ) in a sentence.

Use of indefinite article.

       1.In the sense of a certain

       Eg. A Sachin Tendulkar ( A certain person named Sachin Tendulkar ).

  1. In its original numerical sense as one.

Eg. Seven days make a week.



Omission of the article.

The article is omitted

    1. Before names of substances.

Eg. Gold is a precious metal.

2.Before most proper nouns like names of countries, names of people.

  1. Before languages .

Eg. 1. They are studying English.
  1. He speaks Kannada at home.

  1. Before places we visit oftenly or regularly.

Eg. 1. I go to college everyday.
      2. He goes to church on Sundays.

  1. Before names of relations, like Brother, Mother.

Eg. 1. Father has gone to Bengaluru.
      2. Aunt has just come.

  1. Before positions that are normally held at one time by one person.

Eg. 1. He became Principal of the college.
      2. He was elected Chairman of the board.










Pronouns.

I : I am a student.

     We : We are students.

     My : This is my book.

     Mine : This book is mine.

     Our : That is our house.
     
Ours : That house is ours.

Me : He gave a pen to me.

Us : They gave a book to us.

You : You are a teacher.

Your : This is your book.

Yours : This book is yours.

He : He is a good doctor.

She : She is a good student.

It : This is your shirt. It is very nice.

His : This is his pensil.

Her : I gave a book to her.

Hers : This computer is hers.

Its : This is my chair. This handle is its.

Him : This book was given to him by me.

Her : This book was given to her by me.

They : They played football today.

Their : It is their property.

Theirs : This property is theirs.

Them : I gave fruits to them.

Myself : I learnt singing myself.

Yourself : You can learn yourself.

Himself : He prepare food himself.

Herself : She learnt cooking rice herself.

Itself : The cow started to run itself.

Ourselves : We learnt swimming ourselves.

Yourselves : Today, you are going to wash clothes yourselves.

Themselves : They surrendered before police themselves.

Active and passive voice.

Subject : Subject is nothing but the person or thing about whom we say.

Object : Object is nothing but the thing that we use to do an action.

Eg. Raju eats fruits.

      Here, in this example, “Raju” is the subject. “fruits” is the object.

Whenever we make sentences, we can show or mention that sentence in more than one ways.

If in a sentence, the person or thing denoted by the verb does an action, then we can say the sentence is in Active voice.

If in a sentence, person or thing denoted by the verb receives an action, then we can say as the sentence is in Passive voice.
 
So, there are two types of voices.
    1. Active voice.
    2. Passive voice.

We follow certain rules while translating sentences from Active voice to passive voice and vice versa.

  1. Active voice : Raju plays Cricket.

Here, subject “Raju” is doing an action.

  1. Passive voice : Cricket is played by Raju.

    Here, the subject is receiving an action.




Tense + base
Active voice
Passive voice
Simple present
take
takes
Am taken
is taken
are taken

Tense + base
Active voice
Passive voice
Present continuous
am taking
is taking
are taking
am being taken
is being taken
are being taken

Tense + base
Active voice
Passive voice
Present perfect
has taken
have taken
has been taken
have been taken


 
Tense + base
Active voice
Passive voice
Simple past
took
was taken
were taken
was being taken

Tense + base
Active voice
Passive voice
Past continuous
was taking
were taking
was being taken
were being taken

Tense + base
Active voice
Passive voice
Past perfect
had taken
had been taken

Tense + base
Active voice
Passive voice
Simple future
will take
shall take
will be taken
shall be taken


Tense + base
Active voice
Passive voice
Can/May/Must etc. + base
can take
must take
can be taken
must be taken



Active voice
Passive voice
I drink milk.
We eat Rotis.

I am writing lessons.
She is reading a book.

They have brought a new Television.
She has completed her exams.

He won the elections.
She purchased a mew property.

He was teaching English.
They were playing Cricket.

He had done that work.
She had written a letter.

He will do that work.
They will win the match tomorrow.

She can win the match.
You must do that work.

They play Cricket everyday.
They drink coffee everyday.
She is drinking tea.
They are learning English.
They have just reached the station.
He will see a movie tomorrow.
They finished their work.
They were playing Football.
They had seen a movie.
They had learnt Hindi.

Milk is drunk by me.
Rotis are eaten by me.

Lessons are being written by me.
A book is being read by me.

A new Television has been brought by them.
Her exams have been completed by her.
Elections were won by him.
A new property has been purchased by her.

English was being taught by him.
Cricket was being played by them.

That work had been done by him.
A letter had been written by her.

That work will be done by him.
The match will be won by them tomorrow.

The match can be won by her.
That work must be done by you.

Cricket is played by them everyday.
Coffee is drunk by them everyday.
Tea is being drunk by her.
English is being learnt by them.
The station has just been reached by them.
A movie will be seen by him tomorrow.
Their work was finished by them.
Football was being played by them.
A movie had been seen by them.
Hindi had been learnt by them.



Direct and Indirect speech

Words of a speaker can be reported in two ways.

If we report the words of speaker by using his actual words, we say the sentence is in Direct speech.

If we do not report the words of  a speaker by quoting his actual words, we say the sentence is in Indirect speech.


Rules for changing Direct speech into Indirect speech.

  1. When the reporting verb is in past tense, all present tenses of the direct are changed into past tense. A simple present tense becomes simple past, a present continuous becomes past continuous, a present perfect becomes past perfect.

Eg. 1. She said “I am happy”  ( Direct ).
          She said ( that ) she was happy ( Indirect ).

  1. She said “they are reading news paper”
She said ( that ) they were reading news paper.

      Note : While converting sentences from Direct to indirect speech, Shall of the future tense becomes should, will of the future tense becomes would, simple past becomes past perfect.

  1. The tenses may not change if the statement is still relevant.
  2. The tense of the Direct speech will not change if the reporting verb is in present tense.

Eg. He said “I am unhappy”
      He said ( that ) he is unhappy.

Question tags.

Pattern of a question tag:

1. For positive statement:- auxiliary + n’t + subject.

  1. For negative statement:- auxiliary + subject.

For positive statements :

Eg. 1. He is coming.
           Isn’t he?

  1. She is writing.
Isn’t she?

  1. They played Cricket.
Didn’t they?

  1. She got a meddle.
Didn’t she?

  1. He talks good in English.
Doesn’t he?

For negative statements :

  1. She is not busy.
Is she?

    1. He can’t swim.
Can he?

    1. Let us go to college.
Shall we?

    1. There are no good players in your class.
Are there?

                 Note : Subject of a question tag is always a pronoun.


Auxiliaries.

The verbs be ( am, is, was etc. ) have and do, when used with ordinary verbs to make tenses, Passive forms, questions and negatives, are called Auxiliary verbs or helping verbs or Auxiliaries.

Be : The Auxiliary “be” is used

  1. While forming continuous tenses.

Eg. I am writing.
      She is playing.

  1. While forming a sentence in Passive voice.

Eg. He was taken to hospital.

 Have : “Have” is used while forming a sentence in perfect tense.

            Eg. They have gone to college.

Do : “Do” is used while making questions and negative sentences.

            Eg. 1.Do you read English news paper?
                  2.I do not read Hindi news paper.

Modals

The verbs Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should, must and Ought are called modal verbs or modals.

      Can : can be used to express ability or capacity

 Eg. 1. She can win the meddle.
             2.Can you talk in English?
       
May : is used to express possibility.

      Eg. 1. He may come to Bengaluru today.
            2.She may take class today.

Could : Could is the past equivalent of Can. Could can be used to show the ability.

    Eg. I could eat 20 Idlis while I was going to college.

Note : We can use “Could” to make polite requests.
     Eg. 1. Could I please ask your name?
  1. Could you please move a bit?

      Might : Might is the past equivalent of May. Might is used to show the remote possibility.

     Eg. 1. It might rain today.
     2. She might come to bengaluru today.

      Shall : 1. Shall is used to express sentences of future.

    Eg. I shall go to Davangere tomorrow.

    I/shall and we/shall are used very rarely in modern English.

 “Shall” gives the meaning of “may”. We are not that sure about the action when we say   
 “shall”.

2. If we use “shall” with second person and third person, it will be like a command.

Eg. You shall not do noise in the class room.

  1. “shall” can be used to offer help with second and third person.

Eg. Shall I drop you to your house?

Will : Will is used when we are sure about the action.

Eg. 1. I will help you.
      2. I will attend the programme.

     Should : is the past form of Shall. Should is used to express duty or obligation.

      Eg. 1. You should not come late to the class.      
      2.You should not miss the classes.

    Must : Must is used to express the necessity.

      Eg. 1. You must do the homework.
      2. You must attend my marriage party.

   Ought ( to ) : expresses moral obligation or desirability and also probability.

     Eg. 1. We ought to help our society.
     2. It ought to rain today.

     Used ( to ) : used ( to ) can be used to show an habit that somebody was doing before. The habit is not happening or taking place at the present moment.

Eg. 1. I used to play a lot of Cricket when I was in college.
      2. He used to come to my house when I was in Bengaluru.

      Need  : “Need to” we use when we want to say the work is to be done.

Eg. 1. I need to go home now.
      2. You need to go to your home early.
           
 “Need not” we use when we want to say the work should not be done.

Eg. 1. You need not go to meeting today.
      2. You need not go to Bengaluru today.

     Dare : Dare us usually used in negative and interrogative sentences to say how the person or thing is brave enough to do that work.

Eg. 1. How dare he talk like that.
  1. How dare she is to act like that.


Auxiliary or helping verbs

Do, Does, Did, Is, Are, Am, Was, Were, Has, Have, Had, Will, Shall, Could, Should, Would, Can, May, Might, Must, Ought (to), Need, Used, Dare (to).

We use auxiliary or helping verbs to make questions, statements, Negative sentences etc. Auxiliary or helping verbs help the main verbs.

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